The development of the contemporary society is characterized with apparent offensive strategy for mastering the nature and aspiration for “minimalization” of the human’s physical efforts.
Recent scientific researches proved that one of the most negative products of the scientific and technological progress is the reduced motive activity (the hypodynamia) that gradually turned into a scourge for the contemporary civilized society.
The improvement of the physical culture and sport system is directly connected with the supply of sound and sufficient scientific, medical, and informational data. The complex solution of the problem could be reduced to several key tasks: studying the levels of physical development, motive abilities, and psychic working capacity; elaborating, experimenting, and implementing effective programs aimed at optimizing the motive regimen and widening the adaptation capacities of the human organism accordingly the specific age and conditions; elaborating scientifically sound methods, tests and indicators for estimating not only the effects from practicing football, but also for evaluating the normative base and the whole efficiency of the system.
The implementation of the Program limits the negative trends connected with children’s unhealthy way of living:
- hypodynamia, reduced working efficiency;
- overweight, spine curvature disorders;
- inadequate usage of the spare time;
- growing aggression and inclination to follow negative social models;
- insufficient finances dedicated to encouraging children to participate in sport activities in their spare time.
The Program is elaborated with a view to creating the needed prerequisites and conditions for provoking children’s interest in football trainings.
- Promotes life-long engagement in sport;
- Offers consecutive development of the athletes;
- Takes advantage of the best up-to-date methods and practices in sport and especially in football;
- Creates the necessary conditions for long-lasting practicing of football and sport as a whole.
The Program is aimed at creating educated players. In order to achieve high-quality results one sportsman could not be just instrument of the coach. On the other hand, he/she should be not only physically well-prepared, but also psychically:
- We must educate children so they can acquire certain principles and values.
- We must train children so they develop positive habits and learn the basics of a sport.
- We must apply specific trainings so that children improve the specific skills and capabilities needed for successful development of player’s potential and prerequisite for future top achievements.
Scientific researches reveal that generally it takes eight to twelve years of trainings to achieve high level (or 15 000 touches of the ball).
The participation of children in competitions, trainings, camps (clinics) will therefore better their technical, physical, and psychical capabilities. The progressive footballer sticks to a balanced formula of trainings, competitions, and rehabilitation, which suggests that the player’s preparation for high achievements should begin in his/her child’s years.
The Program provides an opportunity to train children in line with logical and progressive plan that is tightly bound with the high requirements and expectations in football.
ІІ. MAIN GOALS
Creating conditions and opportunities for children to participate in football trainings with a view to improving their health and physical activity.
Preparation of players who gain in-depth knowledge in the spheres of football, sport, sport training, and healthy way of living.
Logically successive training cycles that raise the sport-technical level of the players.
Participation in tournaments and championships in as many age groups as possible.
ІII. CONCRETE TASKS
- Support children in gaining basic knowledge, skills and habits of practicing football.
- Widening the scope of the sport activities and motivating children to participate with a view to bettering their physical abilities and offering alternatives for complete use of their free time through healthy motive activity.
- Using the potential of the sport as an efficient tool to prevent diseases, overweight, spine curvature disorders, intolerance, violence, use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs.
- Form and develop certain social skills in children – team work, tolerance, cooperation, communication, leadership, efforts’ value, sharing, self-confidence, trust, honesty, self-respect, discipline, assurance, following the rules and principles of the “Fair play”.
Openness and accessibility
Perceptiveness and stability
Orderliness and consistency
V. SUBJECT AND RANGE
- The subject of the Program is defining, planning, and realizing activities connected with creating prerequisites and opportunities for children’s football trainings.
In time aspect the Program Програмата is implemented yearly – from 5 January to 23 December of the corresponding year.
- Planning of the detailed schedule:
- number of the groups – not less than 4 (12, 14, 16, 18-year-old)
- number of children in a group – not less than 5
- number of weekly trainings for a group – up to 4
- total number of trainings in a group – not less than 2
- duration of the project -not less than 12 months
- duration of a training – 60 min.
VI. EXPECTED RESULTS
- Provided opportunities for children to take part in football trainings under the guidance of qualified sport specialists.
- Widened range and enhanced motivation in children to practice systematically football in their free time.
- Created opportunities for the selection of children with high potential for future professional development as football players.
- Sport used as an efficient tool to prevent diseases, overweight, spine curvature disorders, intolerance, violence, use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs.
- Formed and developed social skills in children – team work, tolerance, cooperation, communication, leadership, efforts’ value, sharing, self-confidence, trust, honesty, self-respect, discipline, assurance, following the rules and principles of the “Fair play”.
- Popularization of the children’s benefits from sport and healthy physical activity through the realization of the Program’s projects.
The lack of adequate training programs for 6 to 16-year-old is a key factor for the underdevelopment of the youth sportsmen (not only in the football clubs). There are several negative trends: children are trained using the model of the main team; girls are trained using the standards for boys; the training plan is dedicated solely on winning – without any development of the children’s intellectual and reasoning faculties, as well as creative abilities.
MAIN FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOOD PLAYER
2.Basic skills (technical and tactical)
HOW SHOULD WE START THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOOD TEAM PLAYER
1.The trainer as a model
2.Habits (in daily life and in trainings)
1.THE RULE OF 10 000 hours of training
2.FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND ABILITIES – Agility, flexibility, speed, stamina, strength.
3.SPECIALIZATION – use of specific football exercises from the very beginning of the training process that take also into consideration individual age and skills.
4.Early and late development of children
5.Right training programs
FACTORS FOR THE SPORT ACHIEVEMENT:
STRENGTH – There are two sensitive periods for training the strength of girls – after reaching the maximal speed and after the beginning of the puberty period. Considering boys there is only one period and it starts 12 to 18 months before reaching the maximal speed.
STAMINA – The sensitive period for training stamina comes after reaching the maximal speed. The players should focus on trainings for aerobic stamina.
SPEED – There are two sensitive periods for both girls and boys.
The first period for girls is when they are between 6 and 8-year-old and the second – between 11 and 13-year-old.
Considering the boys, the first period is between 7 and 9-year-old and the second – between 13 and 16-year-old.
During the first period the trainings should emphasize on developing agility and speed, while during the second it should be focused on developing the anaerobic alactic energy system.
Active start – 6-year-old
This period directs children to initial learning and adaptation to some key motive abilities. The learning process is realized using different environments and topics with which children come across in daily life. The physical activity should be entertaining and become part of the daily life. Through the physical exercise a child should discover the surrounding world and build up confidence in the positive environment. At an early age the active development of some physical abilities is also connected with the development of brain activity, coordination, social skills, capacity of the motive abilities, emotions, leadership skills, and imagination. The physical trainings also build up confidence, improve the balance and the posture, construct healthy bones and muscles, help reducing the overweight, do away with stress problems, better the sleep, as well as the cognitive skills and abilities. Every day children should have at least 30 min. of organized trainings and hours of non-structured different sport games. Different exercises for agility, coordination, balance, speed, jumping, throwing, etc. are applied.
Amusement with football games – 6-10-year-old
At that age children begin participating in more organized activities, which cultivate the main football skills. The development of the physical literacy continues as children engage in many sport activities during the trainings. It is of extreme importance that all the children have already mastered fundamental motive abilities before starting with training the specific skills. The focus is on encouraging children’s self-confidence by emphasizing on the individual achievements.
At that age is the first sensitive period for developing the speed (hands and legs), agility, and other fundamental skills.
The aerobic systems, the muscular strength the stamina, the agility, and the stability are improving.
The trainings use different running, jumping, shooting, handling, agility, balance, coordination, speed exercises
Techniques of the football game – BASIC PRINCIPLES:
Movement and control of the ball
Passing and receiving the ball
Scoring a goal
Tackling the ball
All the skills should be trained in both static and dynamic situations.
Being a unique aspect of the football game, working with ball in different situations should be a special emphasis in the trainings. That motive action should be developed ever since an early age.
Tactics – passing the ball and decision-making are the most crucial elements that lay the basis of the tactical skills gained in this period. The most important aspects are connected with well-judged passing, accuracy and strength when kicking the ball. Children get also familiarized with the so called “dead ball situations” and how they can be used to score a goal. The focus remains on promoting the team work and keeping attention during the play.
The period is suitable for building of physical skills, such as strength and flexibility.
Learning through trainings – 9-11-year-old
This is the most important period for developing specific football skills. It is characterized by fast mastering of the coordination and the precision motive control. This is yet an early stage for specialization in football or playing at a certain position. Children could also involve in other activities or sports in order to fully develop their physical skills and abilities. This period is crucial for the implementation of future training programs and the development of certain skills. In training mode the players should fulfill the necessary number of rehearsals and dedicate enough time in order to adapt to this sport game, as well as master in practice basic football skills.
To achieve best results 75% of the time should be spent in trainings and only 25% in competitions, where the main goal should be the application what is learned so far, but not seeking a win over the opponent.
Physical abilities – strength (use of exercises with own weight, medical balls), stamina, and speed. It is important to provide initial instructions for nutrition and hydration.
Technique – play with ball – first touch, passing, possession (control and dribble), eliminating the opponent, tackling, shooting.
Play of the goalkeeper: acquainting with the role of the goalkeeper. Exercises – control of the ball with feet and hands, clearing the ball form danger.
Tactics – gradual familiarization with mini games, numerical superiority, equality or inequality. Adding games that improve the positioning (including the goalkeeper). Main directions – use of space, work in small areas, team work and communication.
Learning through trainings – 12-15-year-old
The competitive period is characterized with 1-2 contests per week. It includes months with enormous training loading and months dedicated primary for resting. The players should learn to show their best at official matches, notwithstanding the results. It should also be emphasized on the trainings aimed at individual skills and physical abilities. The ratio between trainings and competitions should be 60:40. This stage is also important for the development of the platers’ physical abilities, especially speed and strength.
Physical abilities – aerobic stamina and speed. Anaerobic trainings could be implemented at the end of this stage.
This stage is also connected with the first preparatory and rehabilitation strategies for trainings and competitions. The loading could have one or two peaks.
Technique – one-touch play, scoring a goal, taking possession of balls with different height, intercepting passes, tackling, actions in case of penalties and dead ball situations. Many skills for passing, receiving the ball, and eliminating an opponent.
Tactics – Main team and individual actions. Elements such as changing the pace of the play, the direction of the attack, covering, pressing the opponent, zonal and man-to-man defence.
Training for competitions – 16-19-year-old
The main aim at this stage is preparing the athletes for high-quality achievements.
Physical abilities – all energetic systems should be developed at the end of the stage. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacities, speed, strength, agility, work with feet, etc. should be tested on a regular basis.
Different practices for rehabilitation, avoiding injuries, and strengthening the key elements of the skeleton and articular systems should also be introduced into the training program.
Technique – The specific skills should be integrated in both defensive and offensive play.
Tactics – decision-making (focus on development of skills to predict the play and to make the right actions to control it).
Use of free space, creating numerical superiority, transition from defense to attack, creating scoring chances, using pressing to dispossess the opponent of the ball, tactical maneuvers. Individualization of the actions in case of dead ball situations and positioning.
Training for winning – over 19-year-old
At this stage the ratio between trainings and competitions becomes 20:80. The competitions themselves and the specific trainings are the base of this period.
Physical abilities – all the systems should be prepared for maximal loading. The priorities in the individual player’s training program are defined through regular tests. In order to sustain high technical and tactical level the footballer should follow highly intensive and loading training programs, as well as adequate rehabilitation procedures after that.
Technique – The most important element at this stage is playing with the ball under pressure. The focus is on improving the skills playing at specific positions or in concrete situations.
Tactics – specific tasks according to player’s position and in dead ball situations. Using counter attack, possession football, zone and man-to-man defense, mixed defense, tactical schemes to counteract the opponent, analysis of the games, decision-making.
Life-long football – the competitions are once per week or one tournament per month. The players should train in order to retain and further develop the key football skills and sustain their health.
- EACH TRAINING OF THE PLAYERS SHOULD ANSWER THE QUESTION: WHAT WILL I IMPROVE AT PERSONAL LEVEL?
- THE ORGANIZATION OF THE TEAM SHOULD FOLLOW ONE CONSISTENT STRUCTURE – FROM THE HEAD COACH AND HIS/HER ASSISTANTS TO THE VERY LAST PLAYER IN THE TEAM!
- THE COACH AND HIS TEAM, AS WELL AS THE PLAYERS SHOULD INSPIRE THE FEELING THAT YOU WILL SUCCEED!
- WHAT WILL WE IMPROVE NEXT YEAR?
STRUCTURE OF THE PREPARATION
This component consists of 6 development phases in the competitive career:
PHASE 1 – very rapid growth and very rapid deceleration
PHASE 2 – steady growth
PHASE 3 – rapid growth
PHASE 4 – rapid deceleration
PHASE 5 – slow deceleration
PHASE 6 – cessation of growth
The development of the human body is characterized with specific periods in which certain skills could be optimally mastered. Following the development of a child provides us with an opportunity to measure the changes of his/her physical abilities, as well as to create individual archive that could be crucial for elaborating an efficient plan for his/her training regimen in the sensitive periods.
Diagnostication for identifying a given sensitive period of acceleration or retardation is a key element in the construction and in the implementation of optimal trainings, participations in competitions, and rehabilitation programs.
HEAD COACH – Key role in management, organization, creation of the whole vision for development of the club. Main aspects of work:
- Responsible for all football levels in the club
- Trains at least on age group
- Instructs and supervises all the other trainers
- Creates working groups
- High level of competencies
- Creates training groups: for seasonal, daily training programs
- Provides monthly reports for his/her work at the club
- Visits parent-teacher meetings
- Participates in courses to improve his/her qualification
The assistant coach supports the work of the head coach in the organization and in all the other aspects of the program “Football”. He/she should conduct regular trainings and preparations for the games. He/she also supports the organization considering equipment, travels, budget, public relations and work of the head coach.
In the program could be included not only children training football, but also volunteers, parents, people that take part in seminars as officials, referees, managers, web developers, people connected with advertising industry, etc.
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THE CLUB’S INSTRUCTORS
The Program is designed for athletes, volunteers, and parents who would like to support the trainers’ work. It aims to deepen the theoretic-methodical knowledge for effective management of the sport preparation at all levels.
- Theory and methods of the sport preparation
- Physical abilities
- Technique and tactics
- Sport selection
- Administration and management
- Games and exercises for up to 10-year-old children
- Games and exercises for up to 12-year-old children
- Games and exercises for up to 14-year old girls and boys
- Games and exercises for up to 16-year old teenagers
Authors: (Footura team) Kaloyan Chernev